Safety Data Sheet

PRODUCT NAME  Crystalline Silica in the form of Quartz - various grades 
Quartz, Crystalline Silica, Silicon Dioxide
MANUFACTURER  Southern Ohio Sand   SUPPLIER CEI Carbon Enterprises Inc.
ADDRESS 225 Wickline Road, Beaver OH 45613   ADDRESS 28205 Scippo Creek Rd, Circleville, OH 43113

  TELEPHONE NUMBER    (800) 344-5770

  FAX NUMBER  (888) 204-9656
14808-60-7 / 238-878-4   Crystalline Silica in the form of Quartz   87 - 99.9%   Xn R48/20
Refer to section 16 for further information on EU Classification. 
See Section 8 for occupational exposure limit information
This product is a chemically inert, non-combustible mineral. 
Lung injury and cancer hazard.  Do not breathe dust.  May cause delayed lung injury.  Long term exposure can cause silicosis.  Silicosis is a respiratory disease, which can result in delayed, disabling and sometimes fatal lung injury.  IARC and NTP have determined that crystalline silica can cause lung cancer in humans.  Risk of injury is dependent on the duration and level of exposure.  A single exposure will not result in serious adverse effects.. See "Health Hazards" in Section XI for detailed information.  See exposure limit presentation in Section VIII for further information.
Avoid creating dust when handling, using or storing.  Use only with adequate ventilation to keep exposure below recommended exposure limits. 
EU Classification of Substance/Preparation: Harmful (Xn) R48/20
GROSS INHALATION  Remove victim to fresh air.  If breathing has stopped, perform artificial respiration.  If breathing is difficult have qualified personnel administer oxygen.  Get prompt medial attention.
SKIN CONTACT No first aid should be needed since dermal contact with this product does not affect the skin.  Wash exposed skin with soap and water before breaks and at the end of the shift.
EYE CONTACT Flush the eyes immediately with large amounts of running water, lifting the upper and lower lids occasionally.  If irritation persists or for imbedded foreign body, get immediate medical attention.
INGESTION If large amounts are swallowed, get immediate medical attention.
EXTINGUISHING MEDIA  This product will not burn but is compatible with all extinguishing media.  Use any media that is appropriate for the surrounding fire.
SPECIAL FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURES None required with respect to this product.  Firefighters should always wear self-contained breathing apparatus for fires indoors or in confined areas.
Wear appropriate protective equipment.  If uncontaminated, collect using dustless method (HEPA vacuum or wet method) and place in appropriate container for use.  If contaminated: a) use appropriate method for the nature of contamination, and b) consider possible toxic or fire hazards associated with the contaminating substances.  Collect for appropriate disposal. 
Do not breathe dust.  Do not rely on your sight to determine if dust is in the air.  Silica may be in the air without a visible dust cloud.  Use normal precautions against bag breakage or spills of bulk material.  Do not use as a dry abrasive blasting agent.  ANSI/AIHA Z9.4:1997 recommends that silica sand be prohibited as an abrasive blasting agent for use in fixed location abrasive-blast enclosures.  Use good housekeeping in storage and use areas to prevent accumulation of dust in work area.   
To reduce the risk of developing silicosis, lung cancer and other adverse health effects, the ACGih recommends that the industrial hygienist use every means available to keep exposures below the recommended TLV. NIOSH recommends reducing airborne exposure levels as low as possible below NIOSH's recommended exposure limit, substituting less hazardous materials when feasible, using appropriate respiratory protection when source controls cannot keep exposures below the recommended limit and making medical examinations available to exposed workers.
Use adequate ventilation and dust collection.  To minimize exposure, wear a respirator approved for silica dust when using, handling, storing or disposing of this product or bag.  Refer to the most recent standards of ANSI (Z88.2), OSHA (29 CFR 1910.134), MSHA (30 CFR Parts 56 and 57) and NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic.  Maintain, clean and fit test respirators in accordance with OSHA regulations.  Maintain and test ventilation and dust collection equipment.  Launder clothing that has become dusty.  Empty containers (bags, bulk containers, storage tanks, etc.) retain silica residue and must be handled in accordance with the provisions of this Material Safety Data Sheet.  WARN and TRAIN employees in accordance with state and federal regulations.
See also American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Practice E1132-99a, "Standard Practice for Health Requirements Relating to Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica".
Additional information on silica hazards and precautionary measures can be found at the following websites: 
  NIOSH Joint Campaign on Silicosis Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/silica/#campaign
  OSHA Crystalline Silica Website http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/silicacrystalline/index.html
  MSHA Silicosis Prevention Website http://www.msha.gov/S&HINFO/SILICO/SILICO.HTM 
  NIOSH Hazard Review-Health Effects of Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Website http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2002-129-02-129a.html
Exposure Limits 
MSHA means Mine Safety and Health Administration.
NIOSH means National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
OSHA means Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 
PEL means OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit.
REL means the NIOSH recommended Exposure Limit.
TLV means American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value.
TWA means time-weighted average.
OSHA PEL AND MSHA Exposure Limit for Crystalline Silica, Quartz   10mg/m3
 (respirable measured as an 8-hour TWA)   % Silica + 2
TLV - 0.025 mg/m3 8-hour TWA (respirable fraction) 
In 2006 the ACGIH lowered the TLV for Silica, Crystalline: α-Quartz and Cristobalite to 0.025 mg/m3 stating in the Documentation of the TLV "Because the time between exposure and signs of fibrosis is characteristically very long, as much as 30 to 40 years, the margin of safety for exposure to crystalline silica at the proposed TLV-TWA is not known precisely.  Given the observed association between silicosis and lung cancer, it is recommended that air concentrations be maintained as far below the proposed TLV as prudent practices permit.  The recommended TLV-TWA of 0.025 mg/m3, respirable particulate mass, is intended to prevent pulmonary fibrosis that may be a risk factor for lung cancer.  An A2, Suspected Human Carcinogen, notation is based on the demonstrated association between lung cancer and the presence of silicosis."  The documentation further states "A lack of toxicological and industrial hygiene data does not permit the recommendation of a TLV-STEL.  However, it should be noted that high exposures of short duration to freshly fragmented crystalline particles do produce an acute and rapidly progressive form of silicosis.  The reader is encouraged to review the section on Excursion Limits in the "Introduction to the Chemical Substances" of the current TLVs® and BEIs® book for guidance and control of excursions above the TLV-TWA, even when the 8-hour TWA is within the recommended limits"
NIOSH has issued its REL of 50 micrograms respirable free silica per cubic meter of air (0.05 mg/m3) as determined by a full shift sample up to 10-hour working day, 40 hours per week.  NIOSH has recommended that OSHA and MSHA adopt the NIOSH REL as the OSHA PEL and the MSHA Exposure Limit.  The 1974 NIOSH Criteria for a Recommended Standard for Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica should be consulted for more detailed information.  Additionally, NIOSH, in a publication entitled NIOSH Hazard Review Health Effects of Occupational Exposure to Respirable Silica (April 2002), NIOSH Stated"...that workers have a significant risk of developing chronic silicosis when they are exposed to respirable crystalline silica over a working lifetime at the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL), the Mine safety and Health Administration (MSHA) PEL, or the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit (REL). ...Current sampling and analytical methods used to evaluate occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica do not meet the accuracy criterion needed to quantify exposures at concentrations below the NIOSH REL of 0.05 mg/m3 as a time-weighted average (TWA) for up to a 10-hour workday during a 40-hr workweek.  Until improved sampling and analytical methods are developed for respirable crystalline silica, NIOSH will continue to recommend an exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3 to reduce the risk of developing silicosis, lung cancer, and other adverse health effects.  NIOSH also recommends minimizing the risk of illness that remains for workers exposed at the REL by substituting less hazardous materials for crystalline silica when feasible, by using appropriate respiratory protection when source controls cannot keep exposures below the NIOSH REL, and by making medical examinations available to exposed workers."
Crystalline silica exists in several forms, the most common of which are quartz (i.e. this poduct), trydimite and cristobalite, with quartz being the most common form found in nature.  If quartz is heated to more than 870ºc, it can change form to trydimite and if quartz is heated to more than 1450ºC, it can change form to cristobalite.  The OSHA PELs and MSHA Exposure Limits for trydimite and cristobalite are one-half of the PEL for quartz.
Ventilation    Use local exhaust as required to maintain exposures as far as possible below applicable occupational exposure limits.  See also ACGIH "industrial Ventilation - A Manual for Recommended Practice" (current edition).  control of exposure to dust must be accomplished as far as feasible by accepted engineering control measures (for example, enclosure or confinement of the operation, general or local exhaust ventilation and substitution of less toxic materials).
Respiratory Protection   When effective engineering controls are not feasible, or while they are being implemented, appropriate respiratory protection must be used.  Use appropriate respiratory protection for respirable particulates based on consideration of airborne workplace concentrations and duration of exposure arising from intended end use.  Refer to the most recent standards of ANSI (Z88.2), OSHA (29 CFR 1910.134), MSHA (30 CFR Parts 56 and 57) and NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic.
Gloves    Protective gloves recommended
Eye Protection   Safety glasses or goggles recommended
Other Protective Equipment/Clothing   As appropriate for the work environment.  Dusty clothing should be laundered before reuse.
Appearance and Odor  White powder, odorless
pH  Not applicable    Specific Gravity (water=1)  2.65
Boiling Point 4046ºF / 2230ºC    Vapor Pressure Not applicable
Melting Point  2930ºF / 1610ºC   Vapor Density Not applicable
Solubility in Water  Negligible    Evaporation Rate Not applicable 
Percent Volatile  0%    Flash Point (Method Used) Fully oxidized, will not burn 
Autoignition Temp  Will not burn    Flammable Limits LEL  Not applicable
      UEL  Not applicable
Stability  Stable
  Conditions to Avoid None
Incompatibility Powerful oxidizing agents such as fluorine, chlorine trifluoride, manganese trioxide, etc.
Hazardous Decomposition Products  Silica will dissolve in hydrofluoric acid producing a corrosive gas, silicon tetrafluoride. 
Hazardous Polymerization  Will not occur
  Conditions to Avoid  None
Inhalation  Breathing silica dust may not cause noticeable injury or illness even through permanent lung damage may be occurring.  Inhalation of dust may have the following serious chronic health effects:
  Silicosis  Excessive inhalation of respirable crystalline silica dust may cause a progressive, disabling and sometimes fatal lung disease called silicosis.  Symptoms include cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, non-specific chest illness and reduced pulmonary function.  This disease is exacerbated by smoking.  Individuals with silicosis are predisposed to develop mycobaterial infections (tuberculous and non-tuberculous) and fungal infections.  Inhalation of air with a very high concentration of respirable silica dust can cause the most serious forms of silicosis in a matter of months or a few years.  Some epidemiologic studies have concluded that there is significant risk of developing silicosis even at airborne exposure levels that are equal to the recommended NIOSH REL, the ACGIH TLV, the OSHA PEL, and the MSHA Exposure Limit.
  Cancer Status   The International Agency for Research on Cancer has determined that crystalline silica is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1 - carcinogenic to humans).  Refer to IARC Monograph 100C, A Review of Human Carcinogens: Arsenic, Fibres, and Dusts (published in 2011) in conjunction with the use of these materials.  The National Toxicology Program classifies respirable crystalline silica as "known to be a human carcinogen".  Refer to the Twelfth Report on Carcinogens (2011).  The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) classifies crystalline silica, quartz, as a suspected human carcinogen (A2).
  Other Data with Possible Relevance to Human Health:
    There is some evidence that breathing respirable crystalline silica or the disease silicosis is associated with an increased incidence of significant disease endpoints such as scleroderma (an immune system disorder manifested by fibrosis of the lungs, skin and other internal organs) rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, erythematosus, sarcoidosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.
  For further information consult "Adverse Effects of Crystalline Silica Exposure" published by the American thoracic Society Medical Section of the American Lung Association, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 155, pages 761-768, 1997, and see also NIOSH Hazard Review - Health Effects of Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica, April 2002 (see Section 7 for NIOSH Hazard Review Website). 
Skin Contact  No adverse effects expected
Eye Contact  contact may cause mechanical irritation and possible injury
Ingestion  No adverse effects expected for normal, incidental ingestion
Chronic Health Effects  See "Inhalation" subsection above with respect to silicosis, cancer status and other data with possible relevance to human health.
Medical Conditions Aggravated by Exposure  Individuals with respiratory disease, including but not limited to asthma and bronchitis, or subject to eye irritation, should not be exposed to respirable quartz dust.
Signs and Symptoms of Exposure  Exposure to dust may cause mucous membrane and respiratory irritation, cough, sore throat, nasal congestion, sneezing and shortness of breath.  However, there may be no immediate signs or symptoms of exposure to hazardous concentrations of respirable crystalline silica *quartz).  Se "Inhalation" subsection above for symptoms of silicosis.  The absence of symptoms is not necessarily indicative of safe conditions.
Acute Toxicity Values  Silica LD50 oral rat>22,500 mg/kg 
Silica: LC50 carp >10,000 mg/L/72 hr.  This product is not expected to present an environmental hazard. 

Waste Disposal Method  Silica is not classified as a hazardous waste under US EPA RCRA regulations.  If uncontaminated, dispose as an inert, non-metallic mineral.  If contaminated, dispose in accordance with all applicable local, state/provincial and federal regulations in light of the contamination present.  Local regulations may be more stringent than regional and national requirements.  It is the responsibility of the waste generator to determine the toxicity and physical characteristics of the material to determine the proper waste identification and disposal in compliance with applicable regulations.
Proper Shipping Name  Not Regulated
Technical Name N/A
UN Number N/A
Hazard Class/Packing Group N/A
Labels Required None
DOT Packaging Requirements N/A
Exceptions N/A
SARA 311/312 Hazard categories for SARA Section 311/312 Reporting : Chronic Health 
SARA 313  This Product Contains the Following Chemicals Subject to Annual Release Reporting Requirements Under the SARA Section 313 (40 CFR 372): None
CERCLA Section 103 Reportable Quantity  None
California Proposition 65  This product contains crystalline silica (respirable) which is known to the State of California to cause cancer.
Toxic Substances Control Act  All of the components of this product are listed on the EPA TSCA Inventory or exempt from premanufacture notification requirements.
European Inventory of Commercial Chemical Substances  All of the components of this product are listed on the EINECS Inventory or exempt from notification requirements.  (The EINECS number for Quartz: 238-878-4)
European Community Labeling  Harmful Xn
  Contains crystalline silica, quartz (238-878-4) 
  R48/20 Harmful: Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure by inhalation.
  S22 Do not breathe dust
  S38 In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
Canadian Environmental Protection Act  All the components of this product are listed on the Canadian Domestic Substances List or exempt from notification requirements.
Canadian WHMIS Classification  Class D, Division 2, Subdivision A (Very Toxic Material causing other Toxic Effects)


This MSDS has been prepared according to the criteria of the Controlled Product Regulation (CPR) and the MSDS contains all of the information required by the CPR. 
Japan METI  All of the components of this product are existing chemical substances as defined in the Chemical Substance Control Law.
Australian Inventory of Chemical Substances  All of the components of this product are listed on the AICS inventory or exempt from notification requirements.
Australian National Occupational Health & Safety Commission Status  Hazardous according to the criteria of Australian National Occupational Health & Safety commission - Harmful (Xn) R48/20 Harmful: Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure by inhalation.
Korea  All of the components of this product are listed on the ECL inventory or exempt from notification requirements. 
Philippines  All of the components of this product are listed on the PICCS inventory or exempt from notification requirements. 


EU Classes and Risk Phrases for Reference (See sections 2 and 3) 
Xn  Harmful
R48/20  Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure by inhalation
S22  Do not breathe dust
S38  In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
NFPA Hazard Rating    Health 1   Fire 0   Reactivity 0
HMIS Hazard Rating   Health *   Fire 0
Reactivity 0
* Warning - Chronic health effect possible - inhalation of silica dust may cause lung injury/disease (silicosis).  Take appropriate measures to avoid breathing dust.  See Section 3. 
  Registry for Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), 2006 
  Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology
  NIOSH Hazard Review - Health Effects of Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica, April 2002
  NTP Twelfth Report on Carcinogens, 2011
  IARC Monograph Volume100C, A Review of Human Carcinogens; Arsenic, Fibres, and Dusts (2011)
  Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), 2006 
  Documentation of the TLV - Silica, Crystalline: α-Quartz and Cristobalite, American conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 2006
Revision Summary  IARC reclassificaiton of silica. (Section 2 and 11)

The Data in the Safety Data Sheet relates only to the specific material designated herein and does not relate to use in combination with any other material or in any process.  The information set forth herein is based on technical data the CEI Carbon Enterprises Inc believes reliable.  It is intended for use by persons having technical skill and at their own discretion and risk.  Since conditions of use are outside the control of CEI Carbon Enterprises Inc, no warranties, express or implied, are made and no liability is assumed in connection with any use of this information.  Any use of these data and information must be determined by the use to be in accordance with federal, state and local laws and regulations.